Braille is a systematic arrangement of raised dots. Each unit, known as a braille cell, consists of six dots arranged in two columns and numbered from 1 to 6, as shown.
Braille is written on special paper, either by hand with a handframe and stylus, by using a braille writing machine, such as a Perkins Brailler, or by an embosser connected to a computer.
Most signs, for example the signs for alphabetic letters, occupy one cell. Some signs can occupy two and occasionally three cells.
A single blank space is left between words and between the end of one sentence and the beginning of the next.
Unified English Braille (UEB)
The Unified English Braille (UEB) code was developed by the International Council on English Braille to harmonise braille across codes and between English-speaking countries. UEB can be used for all documents regardless of whether their content is literary or technical. Australia was one of the first countries to adopt UEB in 2005, replacing a hybrid of codes with a single code, UEB.
The information in this Course is based on two main references:
The Rules of Unified English Braille June 2013, which is available for download from http://www.iceb.org.
Australian Braille Authority Rules and Guidelines for Formatting of Braille Material, 2016.
These references should be considered the primary authority on UEB and formatting in Australia and have priority over this Course where any differences arise.